How to prevent obesity in infancy?

Encourage breastfeeding, because breastfed babies have a significantly lower risk of obesity years later than artificially fed babies.

And the longer the breastfeeding time, the lower the probability that the baby will be obese in the future. Supplementary foods should be added reasonably, compliant feeding is encouraged, but not forced to eat, supplementary foods should maintain the original flavor, and minimize the intake of sugar and salt.

How to judge if children are overweight or obese?

Overweight and obesity refer to the ratio of children’s weight to height that exceeds a certain range.

Children under 5 years old are judged by weight/height, and children over 5 years old are judged by age-sex body mass index (BM). If weight/height ≥ median + 1 standard deviation, or BM ≥ median + 1 standard deviation, it is considered overweight;

If weight/height ≥ median + 2 standard deviations, or BM ≥ median + 2 standard deviations, it is considered obese.

What should parents do about obese children?

Obesity may have an impact on multiple systems of children’s bodies. It is necessary to gradually change the unhealthy lifestyle and maintain a healthy family diet and behavior in order to achieve effective intervention. Here are some suggested points

a. Control the intake of high-calorie foods and eat less high-energy foods such as fried, fried, and fast food.

b. Avoid over-satisfaction with dinner, no supper, no snacks, small and frequent meals, and chew slowly.

c. Choose interesting and persistent sports, such as brisk walking, jogging, cycling, ball games, swimming, etc.

d. Restrict the time that children can watch the screen (electronic products such as televisions and mobile phones).

e. Parents should avoid bringing home unhealthy foods.

f. Involve the whole family to make everyone’s diet healthier.

How old should vitamin D be supplemented?

In the past, it was believed that infants and young children are more likely to be deficient in vitamin D than children and adults. Vitamin D is generally recommended to be supplemented until 2 to 3 years old.

However, current research has found that children of all ages are at risk of vitamin D deficiency, and it has even been observed that as children age, vitamin D deficiency becomes more serious. Therefore, it is recommended that vitamin D supplementation should continue until adolescence, and “because of Time, place, and person vary.”

How to prevent zinc deficiency in infants and young children?

Zinc is an essential trace element for the human body, and it participates in almost all metabolic processes in the body. Zinc deficiency can be extremely harmful to the baby.

Mainly cause the following three aspects of harm:

A. Affect height growth (growth retardation);

B. Lead to a decline in immune function (easy to respiratory infections, diarrhea, etc.);

C. Affect children’s neuropsychological development (declined attention, etc.).

The main source of zinc is animal food. Beef, lean pork, liver, etc. are the most easily obtained zinc-rich foods. Fish contains less zinc than lean meat. Shellfish such as oysters contain high zinc content but are not as easy to obtain as meat. Plant foods are low in zinc and have poor biological activity.

In order to prevent zinc deficiency, babies should be added with zinc-rich complementary foods such as meat, liver, egg yolk, etc. after 4 to 6 months of age. Babies should pay attention to a balanced diet, avoid picky eaters, and ensure the intake of zinc-rich animal foods.

My baby has iron-deficiency anemia, what should I pay attention to when treating it?

After being judged by a specialist, the child took iron according to the prescription, and various nutritional supplements could not replace drugs. Taking iron in divided doses and between meals can help reduce the irritation of iron to the gastrointestinal tract. Taking it with vitamin C can promote iron absorption.

Pay attention to supplementing foods with rich iron content and high absorption rates in the diet, such as lean pork, beef, animal blood, liver, and other animal foods with high iron content and heme iron with high absorption rate; plant foods The iron is non-heme iron, and the absorption rate is relatively low.

Does it matter if my child lacks iron but does not have anemia?

Everyone knows that when the iron is lacking, the body cannot synthesize enough hemoglobin to cause iron-deficiency anemia, but perhaps everyone does not know that anemia is a serious stage of iron deficiency, even if it is a mild iron deficiency that has not caused anemia, it is It has caused irreversible damage to children’s cognition and learning ability, behavioral development, etc.

This is because iron is not only an essential component for the synthesis of hemoglobin but also an important element of key enzymes in certain metabolic pathways in the body.

Therefore, iron deficiency will lead to many aspects of nutritional metabolism and organ dysfunction in children, as well as weakened immune function, and its harmfulness even exceeds iron deficiency anemia itself.

How to supplement calcium for a baby?

Milk and dairy products are rich in calcium and are the main source and the best source of dietary calcium for infants and young children.

Green vegetables, soybeans, and soy products also contain high levels of calcium, which can be used as supplementary sources of calcium.

Can bone soup supplement calcium? Some scholars have done experiments. The calcium content in bone soup is 1~3mg/100ml, which is only 1/100~1/30 of milk, which is obviously not a good calcium food source. Moreover, the fat content in bone soup is high, which is not suitable for infants and young children to digest.

According to the recommendation of the Chinese Nutrition Society, the recommended daily calcium intake for babies from 0 to 6 months is 200 mg, and for babies from 7 to 12 months is 250 mg. Breast milk contains 250 to 300 mg/L of calcium, and formula milk contains a higher calcium content. For normal term infants with suitable vitamin D levels, the calcium in breast milk and formula milk is sufficient to meet their needs, and additional calcium supplementation is generally not required.

The recommended daily calcium intake for babies from 1 to 3 years old is 600mg. Drinking 500ml of milk or a considerable amount of other dairy products per day can roughly meet the calcium needs.

The calcium needed for the baby’s growth should be obtained from a balanced diet, and calcium supplements should only be used when sufficient calcium is not available from food. Although calcium is very important to the human body, excessive calcium supplementation can also cause harm.

What are the characteristics of hand, foot, and mouth disease?

Children under 5 years of age are susceptible to hand, foot, and mouth disease, and close contact is an important mode of transmission.

Infection can be caused by contact with virus-contaminated hands, towels, handkerchiefs, dental cups, toys, eating utensils, milk sets, bedding, underwear, etc., and can also be transmitted through respiratory droplets, drinking or ingesting virus-contaminated water and food, And so on.

Respiratory secretions, saliva, feces, and herpes fluids of sick babies are also the main sources of infection.

Hand, foot, and mouth disease is mainly manifested as fever, rashes on hands, feet, mouth, buttocks, and other parts. Typical skin rashes are maculopapular rash, papules, and herpes. There is inflammatory flushing around the rash. The sick child may be accompanied by symptoms such as cough, runny nose, and loss of appetite.

The natural course of ordinary mild cases is 7 to 10 days, and the prognosis is good. However, a small number of children with severe hand, foot, and mouth diseases can cause serious complications such as meningitis, encephalitis, and pulmonary edema, which can be life-threatening.

There are many kinds of viruses that cause hand, foot, and mouth diseases. Once infected with hand, foot, and mouth disease, you can only gain immunity to a certain type of virus. It is still possible to infect other types of viruses and cause hand, foot, and mouth disease again.

What should I do if my baby has chickenpox?

Varicella is an acute infectious disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, which mostly occurs in spring and winter. The susceptible population is children between 2 and 6 years old.

Children with chickenpox and adults with shingles are the source of infection, mainly through droplets, infection through the respiratory tract, or contact with chickenpox herpes fluid.

It is contagious during the period from 1 day before the onset of the rash to the complete scab of herpes. Babies with chickenpox should rest in bed, drink plenty of water, and eat easy-to-digest foods. Keep indoor air circulation, change underwear frequently, and avoid scratching the skin to avoid secondary infections.

Use antiviral drugs according to the doctor’s advice, pay attention to prevention and treatment of complications, and use antibiotics when necessary. Sick children should be isolated and treated at home until 7 days after herpes has all scabs or rashes.

How to prevent babies from spreading measles?

The measles virus is transmitted through the air and droplets from the respiratory tract. The patient is the only source of infection, and lasting immunity can be obtained after illness, and the second attack is very rare.

People who have never suffered from measles and have not been vaccinated against measles are generally susceptible, which mostly occurs in infants and young children between 6 months and 2 years of age.

The best way to prevent measles is to protect susceptible people and vaccinate live attenuated measles vaccine according to the planned immunization program.

Babies are first sown at 8 months after birth. After vaccination, the immunity can last for 4-6 years, and they will be re-inoculated at the age of 7 years.

Children with measles should be quarantined until 5 days after the onset of the rash, children with complications should be quarantined for 10 days, and susceptible children who have been in contact with children with measles should be quarantined for 3 weeks.

Does my baby need to be vaccinated against flu?

In principle, people who are more than 6 months old and have no contraindications for vaccination can consider influenza vaccination.

The following are the groups recommended by experts to give priority to vaccination:

Pregnant women or women preparing to become pregnant during flu season,

Family members and caregivers caring for babies younger than 6 months,

Children from 6 months to 5 years old,

Elderly people 60 years and older,

Patients with specific chronic diseases and medical staff.

Influenza vaccination is not a guarantee. One hundred percent will not be flu, but it can greatly reduce the probability of getting flu. Even if you are unfortunately recruited after vaccination, it can also reduce symptoms and reduce the risk of severe illness. So current vaccination is to prevent flu. The most effective way.